Last Updated:

10/09/2020 - 13:03

The research article “Silver nanoparticles-tragacanth gel as a green membrane for effective extraction and determination of capecitabine”, co-authored by METU Visiting Researcher Dr. Mehrdad Forough, has been published in Journal of Separation Science.

A novel eco-friendly and effective electromembrane extraction method combining high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed for the enrichment and determination of capecitabine. Tragacanth-silver nanoparticles conjugated gel was prepared by dissolving the tragacanth powder in synthesized silver nanoparticles solution and was used as a green membrane in electromembrane extraction. The porosity and presence of silver nanoparticles in the gel were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. This new electromembrane extraction approach uses neither organic solvent nor carrier agents to extract the target analyte. The best electromembrane extraction efficiency was obtained by using 4.0 mm membrane gel thickness containing 2.5% w/v of tragacanth gum, donor phase pH = 5.0, acceptor phase pH = 3.0, applied voltage 50 V, extraction time 20 min, and agitation rate 500 rpm. During method validation under the optimized conditions, good linearity dynamic range between 1 and 500 ng/mL with the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.998 was obtained. Limit of detection and Limit of quantitation were estimated to be 0.84 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Finally, the applicability of this method in real samples was confirmed by an acceptable performance in extraction and determination of capecitabine in human plasma samples.

Hajizadeh, S., Farhadi, K., Molaei, R., & Forough, M. (2020). Silver nanoparticles-tragacanth gel as a green membrane for effective extraction and determination of capecitabine. Journal of Separation Science, 43(13), 2666-2674. doi:10.1002/jssc.202000251


Article access:

METU Author

Dr. Mehrdad Forough

Scopus Author ID: 42461432100
ORCID: 0000-0001-5475-1203


capecitabine; electromembrane extraction; silver nanoparticles; tragacanth gel

Other authors:
Hajizadeh S., Farhadi K., & Molaei R.

This work is a part of a thesis by Salahaddin Hajizadeh submitted for a PhD degree and is supported by the Research Council of Urmia University. The authors appreciate Miss Sepideh Farhadi for her efforts with the English edition of the text.